了解铁人三项教练的跑步物理学

了解铁人三项教练的跑步物理学

在决定与铁人三项运动员的基于跑步的干预时,请考虑物理。这将确保策略不那么侵入性和更有效。

It’s probably uncontroversial to suggest that the majority of injuries within triathlon come from running. This is easy to see anecdotally. Everyone knows a perpetually injured runner.

教练和运动员花费大量时间思考如何避免受伤。更有效地做到这一点的一种方法是对跑步行动期间的身体力量有了深入的了解,因为这些力通常是造成伤害的原因。

最重要的是,全面了解跑步动作可以帮助优化运动员的效率。

运动定律

In the 1600s Isaac Newton wrote down three laws of mechanical motion. These still apply today and they describe how, mostly, everything moves.

  1. 除非施加力,否则以恒定速度移动的物体保持恒定速度。
  2. 力等于质量和加速度的乘积。
  3. Every action has an equal and opposite reaction.

涉及的力量

考虑一个跑步者沿着一条公寓,铺好的道路行驶。他们会感觉到重力,摩擦和空气阻力的抵抗力。这些力量有助于受伤并减慢运动员的速度 - 因此,减少他们是我们的利益。

重力:健康减肥是关键

每一步都是一个小跳起来从一只脚上the other. Running physiologists use the term “vertical oscillation,” which is somewhat frustrating to a physicist as it’s not an oscillation.

This describes how high a runner goes off the floor with each step. Every time we leave the ground, it’s gravity which brings us back down. It is the force from gravity which dictates how hard we hit the floor with each foot-strike, which in turn dictates how much force muscles, tendons, ligaments and bones feel.

运动员在跑步时感觉到的引力力是基于两件事 - 当地的引力场和运动员的体重。除非我们能找到一种在月球上奔跑的方法,否则我们对当地重力场的强度无能为力,但是在某些情况下,减肥可能是值得考虑的干预措施。

更轻的运动员更有效,但是只有他们能够保持健康。已知能量可用性与骨骼健康有关,因此最好在很少或没有运行强度的训练阶段逐渐进行体重减轻。

摩擦:找到合适的跑步鞋

摩擦是在两个彼此接触的两个表面之间产生的力。摩擦与跑步速度之间的关系不像骑自行车,较低的阻力通常总是更好。

If that were true, we’d do all our running on ice rinks. Friction is good when running as it helps us transfer power to the floor more efficiently. It is, however, also one of the forces which tries to prevent us from leaving the floor due to contact between our shoes and the ground.

有足够的抓地力以进行有效的电力传输和卡在地板上之间有一个甜蜜的位置。

Finding this sweet spot is all about shoe selection. This is important in both training and racing. In training, avoiding slips and rolled ankles can help an athlete avoid an acute injury.

从赛车的角度来看,确保抓地力足以获得牵引力很重要。例如,您不会在越野跑的铁人三项比赛中穿碳纤维公路赛车鞋,尤其是在预报中降雨时。这是因为从碳板上提高效率将通过每次脚打开一点来抵消碳板的效率。

空气阻力:避免在包装中奔跑

我们都经历了逆风,这是非常不愉快的。空气阻力随速度的平方而增加。

This means if we run twice as fast, we feel four times as much resistance. If we run three times as fast, we feel nine times as much air resistance, and so on. Air resistance is the second biggest resistive force a runner will feel.

根据一项研究Journal of Applied Physiology,马拉松运动员的能量中约有2%用于克服空气阻力。这可能会转换三分钟半的三小时马拉松赛跑者。

Short of running in a Cathy Freeman style skinsuit, running in a pack is the best way to avoid the wind. This is more important if you’re a faster runner, as air resistance is proportional to the square of speed.

But if you can get yourself out of the wind in a running race — do it! Racing comes down to fine differences, and the 2% of energy air resistance uses can make all the difference.

关于运行节奏的额外说明

最近发表的一项研究当前的骨质疏松症报告表明运行节奏与效率和受伤的可能性有关。跑步节奏也是高度个性的,但总的来说,对于大多数跑步者来说,每分钟170至200步的节奏是最佳的。

If an athlete is struggling with bone stress injuries, then an increase in cadence is a low-risk intervention which could help. It can feel unnatural at first, and this is something I’ve done recently as an athlete, but you soon get used to it. It reduces the amount of loading through your legs with each step and reduces the risk of overstriding, hence reducing injury risk.

结论:考虑一种基于物理的方法

在决定基于跑步的干预措施时,无论是套件,避免伤害还是提高效率,教练都应考虑基于物理的方法。

从试图减少电阻力量并旨在改善运动员的推进的立场开始,教练可以做出干预措施,而干预措施则不那么侵入且更有效。

When it comes to low risk and high reward interventions, an increase in running cadence is always a solid starting point, with many studies showing a higher cadence associated with running faster and getting injured less.

Physics is consistently working against us — whether it’s a headwind or gravity. Physicists, physiotherapists and physiologists have given us tools to overcome this in order to make the most of what we’ve got.