运动员逐渐减少常见问题解答,所有耐力教练都应该知道

运动员逐渐减少常见问题解答,所有耐力教练都应该知道

逐渐减少对所有耐力运动员至关重要。We answer some of the most common questions about a taper that you will inevitably hear from your athletes.

锥度时间是耐力运动员的压力时间。将其身体推到极限的几个月后,拉回训练负荷可能会感到奇怪。运动员不仅担心失去健身,而且还倾向于过度分析锥度期间所做的一切。

What should I be eating? Why do I feel worse? Should I do one last long run? These are all questions you may receive from your athletes.

作为一名教练,您的工作是减轻运动员的思想,确保他们在比赛前的最后几天做得不太多,并钉锥。考虑以下问题,您将不可避免地从运动员那里收到。

什么是锥度?

锥度是比赛前训练负荷的逐渐减少。目的是减少疲劳,以确保运动员在比赛当天进行精神和身体优化。

A good taper will foster improvements in exercise economy, blood plasma volume and enzyme activity. After a taper, athletes typically report feeling stronger, sharper and fit. The result, depending on the athlete, could mean a 1% to 6% improvement in performance (3% to 4% is typical).

What Should a Taper Look Like?

锥度的确切结构将取决于运动员,他们的训练负荷以及比赛的重要性(即比赛是否是A-Race,B-Race,首先是一系列比赛等)。

Different athletes respond in different ways to tapers. Some athletes benefit from a fairly radical reduction in training load multiple days before an event, while others race better on a less intensive taper.

实验对于确定单个运动员应如何逐渐锥度很重要。但是,多年来,我发现以下原则是正确的:

  • 对于大多数人来说,理想的锥度持续时间为10-14天。
  • 与低量运动员相比,大批量的运动员可以减少训练负荷(占峰值训练负荷的百分比),同时表现良好。这也是为什么我们经常看到Ironman运动员的锥度比Sprint铁人三项运动员更长的原因。
  • Athletes who “overreached” in training or who are burnt out often benefit from a longer taper of up to three weeks.
  • During the taper, workout frequency should remain the same, however the duration of each session should be reduced.
  • For most athletes I work with, a ~20% reduction in training stress two weeks out and another 20% reduction in the final week works well.
  • It is important athletes continue high-intensity work for the neuromuscular benefit and to avoid feeling flat on race day.

Do Different Disciplines Require a Different Tapering Strategy?

Most athletes will benefit from reducing load in all disciplines throughout the taper, though the specific nature of the reduction will vary.

对于那些在最小游泳中获得的铁人三项运动员(例如,每周两到三个2,000米),无需大大减少游泳训练负荷。根本没有足够的疲劳或负载来减少。

同样,在所有学科中执行始终如一的训练负荷(每周少于八个小时)的铁人三项运动员将受益于两到三天的较短锥度,而不是两到三周。

高影响力(例如跑步)受益于比低影响运动(例如骑自行车和游泳)受益的。例如,Ironman运动员最长的比赛应在比赛日前大约三周发生,而最长的自行车骑行可能是在两周前合理发生的。

但是,保持跨学科的频率,尤其是在游泳和跑步方面,这是更密集的,这是有益的。

训练的起伏应该如何变化?

Athletes should maintain the frequency of their workouts while reducing the duration of the workouts and the intervals therein. For example, if an athlete typically does 8×800 meter repeats in a workout, two weeks before race day they might do five 6×800 and one week prior three 4×800. In this way the overall intensity remains while volume decreases.

Should I Take Full Rest Days During a Taper?

It depends. An off day or two is often a good idea for athletes who are used to taking them, however, it is important to remember that an overall reduction in training volume means a day off would not be as valuable for unloading fatigue as during peak training. It is possible to unload fatigue while still working out each day so long as the sessions are light.

Rather than take complete rest days, it is often better to do very short sessions (as little as 10-20 minutes) in the few days leading into a race. This ensures athletes maintain technique and motor coordination within each discipline without accruing fatigue.

Should My Day-to-Day Nutrition Change?

With the lower training load, athletes will be burning fewer calories. If they continued to consume the same amount of food during the taper weeks, they would likely gain a bit of weight.

一两英镑没什么大不了的,如果运动员太苗条,它甚至可能是一个积极的补充。但是,在面包和意大利面上填充两个星期attempt to carbo-load适得其反。取而代之的是,运动员应该像训练期间一样继续自我加油,但应减少与减少训练负荷相一致的卡路里数量。

在比赛前的三天内,运动员应稍微增加碳水化合物与所消耗的脂肪/蛋白质的比例。这样可以确保他们从糖原商店中脱颖而出,并将进入比赛充分的比赛(对于长期赛车尤其重要)。

除了训练外,我还应该逐渐变细吗?

严重的精神压力会对训练,恢复和赛车产生负面影响。Minimizing life stress, if possible, in the days leading into a major race could positively impact performance.

在比赛开始前几天,在本周早些时候完成压力的每周任务,这将使运动员能够以更加清新和积极的心态脚步,以提高表现,以提高他们的表现。

Is It Normal to Feel Worse During a Taper?

运动员在锥度期间感到沮丧并不少见。现金伟德平台较低的训练负荷为身体带来独特的东西。较少的训练意味着更少的内啡肽,并且可能会感到厌倦或脾气暴躁。

缺乏活动和内向的重点也可能导致运动员发现新的疼痛和痛苦,从而导致更多的焦虑。尤其是在锥度开始时,许多运动员报告说沉重,缓慢且健康较少。作为一名教练,您应该传达这些感觉是正常的,并且会通过。

在整个锥度中,鼓励您的运动员坚持计划并信任该过程。

几天后,当您的运动员开始感觉良好时,您的工作是阻止他们并阻止最后一刻的健身测试。您希望他们在合适的时间点燃比赛:在比赛日。