How to Pace a Long Course Triathlon: Tactics for Swim, Bike, and Run

How to Pace a Long Course Triathlon: Tactics for Swim, Bike, and Run

第二部分“如何步调三项铁人三项赛”为每个铁人三项段提供了特定的节奏策略。

With each segment impacting the next, triathlon really is one sport. There are a lot of reasons for a “bad” run, but improper pacing in the previous segments (i.e., the swim and the bike) is often a common cause. Here’s a guide to specific pacing strategies for your swim, bike, and run so you can finish strong on race day.

Swim

The swim might be the shortest portion of the race, but it sets the tone for the day and will impact your performance on the bike and run. While you may not win your goals during the swim, you certainly can lose them there.

对游泳工作的影响的研究发现,在比赛的开放时刻,游泳的步调不当(或健身)可以显着增加血液乳酸。发生这种情况时,您的人力资源将保持超出您的常态。在某些情况下,这种人力资源的跳跃可能是4%或更多。这是避免这些问题的方法。

开始智能

甚至在进入水中之前,请使用适当的热身来应用“开始智能原理”。如果您被允许,请进入水中进行游泳热身。如果不可能,请完成旱地功能热身。这可以包括轻慢跑,然后进行动态拉伸。

在开始线上,适当地种子以避免被更快的游泳者扫除,这可以使您摆脱游戏计划。对于70.3或140.6,最好的策略(大多数)是在前几百码内开始控制并努力工作。

Your race effort should follow your training protocol. For a 70.3, you may shoot for 85-90% of max; for 140.6, your effort may be in the 75-85% of max range. Ultimately, however, your experience will dictate the level of intensity that is appropriate for you as these ranges may not work for your individual ability.

It is also worth noting that technique is more important than effort, so it is important to swim at an effort during which you can maintain proper form. A mix of RPE and feel for the water should help drive this decision for pacing during the swim.

继续前进

Understanding the rhythm of the course and your comfort level around other swimmers should play a role in how you plan to approach the swim course. Are you going to hug the buoy line? Stay outside the fray? Or you may want to start outside the commotion and work your way in closer to the buoy line. Determine your strategy, but if circumstances change, be flexible and adapt. Also, make sure you sight regularly so you can maintain as straight a line as possible relative to your strategy.

制图

There is good reason to draft, as estimates say it can reduce energy expenditure by 30% and reduce overall time by up to 3 minutes or more for 2.4 miles. That is akin to years in swim math!

尽可能抓住机会选拔另一位游泳运动员。最好是通过在某人的脚或臀部附近的头上游泳来完成。但是,如果您花费大量精力来寻找起草机会,那么最好专注于自己的努力和技术。

自行车

A triathlon bike is not about your fastest possible bike — it’s about an optimal bike that allows for a strong run. Based on your experience, there are varying degrees of wiggle room between bike effort and run effort. Determine these edges in training so you can ascertain the cost of energy expenditure on the bike in relation to energy availability for the run. This matters regardless of race duration.

自行车起搏指标

You can use a variety of metrics to determine this “wiggle room”, such as intensity factor (IF). IF is a percentage of your threshold using either watts or heart rate. Below is a table of target IF ranges for different race durations. You can use these as general guides to help with your pacing strategy.

种族持续时间 IF-Power 如果是心率 RPE
Sprint Triathlon (10-18 mile bike) 88-98% FTP (functional threshold power) LTHR的93-100%(乳酸阈值心率) 9-10
奥林匹克铁人三项(25英里自行车) 85-95% FTP 90-97%的LTHR 8-9
70.3铁人三项(56英里自行车) 72-85%FTP 88-95%LTHR 6-7
140.6铁人三项(112英里自行车) 60-75% FTP 80-89%的LTHR 4-5
双重铁人三项(224英里+) Under 60% FTP 70-79%LTHR 3

Please note that these ranges should be tested and verified in training to determine what works best for you. There are always individual and external circumstances that will impact what is the appropriate target for you. For example, on a hot day, 70% of FTP may come with a different energy cost than it would on a day with moderate conditions. Also, note that power is a more reliable indicator of outcome effort than HR; however,人力资源应受到监控当它告诉您您的身体在任何一天的努力中如何反应。

For hills, you may increase the watt caps by 5-15% or so, depending on the nature of the hills and your bike fitness and experience. Heart rate caps can go to the bottom of the next zone. It’s worth noting that HR and RPE can take some time to “catch up”, so be smart with your hill strategy!

Training Stress Score (TSS)是您可以用来找出适当起搏的另一种方法,并且在模仿每周训练中的比赛压力方面特别有用。通过完成在比赛当天会产生的TSS或附近积累的训练游乐设施,您将为比赛当天的努力做好充分的准备。以下是一些常见铁人三项距离的自行车部分的目标TSS范围的概述:

  • 冲刺:最多60 TSS
  • 奥运会:90-120 TSS
  • 70.3:150-190 TSS
  • 140.6: 250-320 TSS
  • Double+: 500+ TSS

要确定IF和TSS之间的正确组合,您可以使用类似的工具Best Bike Splitto get an estimate of how long the bike will take, which in turn can help you plot the intensity that’s appropriate for both the duration and the terrain.

通过抵制诱惑离开T2的诱惑,为您的节奏良好的跑步奠定了基础。开始跑步时,请花点时间找到节奏。在一场比赛中,比试图在一开始就试图积极地“银行时间”会产生更好的结果。

银行在前面经常导致更多的损失st time on the back half. While we may lose speed at the end of a race, especially in a long course, this should not be substantial (assuming proper fitness, a well-paced bike, and adequate fueling and hydration). The best racers are the ones who slow down the least.

A loss of speed in the second half is not necessarily an inevitable conclusion. It is possible to even (or negative) split the run. Practice this strategy in training and incorporate multiple bike-to-run bricks throughout your week.

运行起搏指标

In terms of intensity targets, use the following estimates in the table below as a general guide.

种族持续时间 人力资源 RPE TSS
Sprint Triathlon (5k) 95-100%LTHR 9-10 25-40
奥林匹克铁人三项(10K) 90-98% LTHR 8-9 50-70
70.3 Triathlon (13.1 miles) 88-95%LTHR 6-7 110-170
140.6 Triathlon (26.2 miles) 80-89%的LTHR 4-5 200-250
双重铁人三项(52.4英里+) Under 85% LTHR 3 400+

During the race, several factors can impact your ability to pace your best triathlon run. Be sure to:

  • Fuel and hydrate on the bike, as well as the run.
  • 适当地骑自行车的步调,因为自行车上的过度努力将等同于跑步效果不佳。
  • 将人力资源抬高至至少区域2。如果您发现它掉落了,请尝试一些步伐。
  • Work hills strategically. Run or hike up as appropriate, and practice running skillfully and quickly downhill.
  • Apply mental fitness skills for pain and fatigue management.

我们的最佳比赛工作来自1%的细节,每个细节总计超过了我们比赛当天成功的100%。适当的节奏包括许多这样的小细节,并让您在健康状况和一天中的状况方面尽力而为。

种族强劲and smart!

References

Barragán, R. et al. (2019, July). Effects of swimming intensity on triathlon performance. Retrieved fromhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/334588421_Effects_of_swimming_intensity_on_triathlon_performance

Etxebarria, N. et al. (2013, September). Cycling Attributes That Enhance Running Performance After the Cycle Section in Triathlon. Retrieved fromhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/256501349_Cycling_Attributes_That_Enhance_Running_Performance_After_the_Cycle_Section_in_Triathlon

洛佩斯,水et al。(2012年5月)。心率和车辆od Lactate Concentration Response After Each Segment of the Olympic Triathlon Event. Retrieved fromhttps://www.scielo.br/j/rbme/a/Y6tMwmCXy6NZVRZQ4NBMBvN/?format=pdf&lang=en

Olcina,G。等。(2019年5月16日)。循环对铁人三项运动员中随后的跑步性能,步幅长度和肌肉氧饱和的影响。从...获得https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc6572577/

Peeling, P.D. et al. (2005, December). Effect of swimming intensity on subsequent cycling and overall triathlon performance. Retrieved fromhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16306507/

Pryor,J。L.等。(2018年11月)。一个完整的Ironman总体女性冠军的节奏策略在一门课程中进行了重大高程变化。从...获得https://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/Abstract/2018/11000/Pacing_Strategy_of_a_Full_Ironman_Overall_Female.10.aspx

Rothschild, J. & Crocker, G.H. (2019, April 5). Effects of a 2-km Swim on Markers of Cycling Performance in Elite Age-Group Triathletes. Retrieved fromhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30959840/

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